Database Security 101

Table of Contents

Database Security refers to the process of protecting databases from security compromises. This is accomplished with a series of controls and categories. These controls include monitoring, encryption, and firewalls. Each of these can help you ensure your databases remain secure. Read on to learn more. Database Security is important to the future of your business.


Monitoring database security is essential to avoid the cost of database breaches. These costs can include real damages, customer trust, and regulatory fines. A good way to detect data exfiltration events is with DAm. Traditional DAm monitors logs of off-site queries to determine anomalies. A good DAm solution also tracks changes in the database, generating change management documents for the database.

One method for monitoring database security involves creating an access matrix between a service user and database. This access matrix can be used to determine when a service system requests information from the database. This can help prevent resource consumption. Another method for monitoring database security involves using a network probe and an analyzer. In this system, the front-end probe is placed at the front end of the protected service system 40 and the back-end probe is placed in a network between the protected service system and the database system.

Another option for monitoring database security is to install software. This tool is easy to install and deploy, and it automatically discovers databases in a network. The management console then installs client-side sensors on each database server. The software then continuously receives security event information from the sensors. It can also be configured to quarantine users and terminate policy violations.

Another method for monitoring database activity is to use database activity monitoring (DAM). This tool is used to detect unwanted activities that may compromise database security. This technology also provides alerts and reports on the activity in the database. A database activity monitoring system will log every time a user logs in or out of a database and can even detect unauthorized users.


Database security planning involves assessing and evaluating the security risks associated with critical data in the database. It also entails identifying and implementing security controls that will help protect the data. Most database security plans are comprised of several different steps, each of which is vital to the overall security of the data.

The first step in database security planning is to categorize and classify the available data. Using a classification system helps the team to identify the most sensitive and valuable information in the database, and invest resources in this information. This will help them to create a security standard that will protect these data from unauthorized access.

Another step in database security planning is implementing real-time monitoring. This helps to identify threats and lock down accounts when they are violated. Real-time monitoring of the database will also help security teams keep an eye on privileged user activity and prevent unauthorized activities from taking place. Such monitoring can be a time-consuming process, but it is critical to ensure that no unauthorized activities are occurring.

One of the best security practices for databases is encryption. This ensures that the data cannot be read by anyone without a special encryption key. Another important precaution is storing decryption keys separately from the encrypted data. It is also advisable to follow key management guidelines for database security. Limiting the number of database users can also help reduce security risks. You should only grant privileges to users whose work involves operating on the database.

Encryption of data

Database security can be increased by encrypting data. There are several options for this, including encryption of data at the column level, table-level encryption, and table-space-level encryption. The most common method is column level encryption, which encrypts each column in a database. This requires less processing than cell level encryption, but can still impact database performance. Row-level encryption, on the other hand, encrypts each row of data with a different encryption key. Encryption across tablespaces is also an option, but can present some problems if not implemented properly.

Encryption of data is a desirable security feature, but the level of protection depends on the type of database you have. For example, you may choose not to encrypt all data, particularly if you use it for sensitive information. However, it is important to consider the advantages and disadvantages of different encryption methods before implementing one for your database.

Database security is an increasingly important issue for businesses. Businesses today store more data than ever before, and effective database encryption is vital to protect sensitive business data. However, database encryption is only effective if it’s implemented in conjunction with best practice key management. This ensures the highest level of security and prevents data breaches.

Database encryption works by converting data into ciphertext that cannot be read without a password. Encrypting a database’s data is crucial to data security, as it significantly decreases the risk of hacking. However, if you’re concerned about performance, consider encrypting individual fields instead of the entire database. Either way, you’ll have a database that’s more secure and complies with data security regulations.


Database firewalls are a way to protect your database from attacks. They work by monitoring every SQL statement sent to the database server. This means that they can identify DML and DDL statements and prevent them from being executed. They also allow you to set policies that control which statements can be executed, and which should be blocked.

Firewalls for databases are web-based software applications that monitor all incoming and outgoing data traffic. They evaluate every query and response by comparing it with predefined security rules, and determine whether to allow or block access to sensitive data. They also recognize malicious data traffic and can be used to block the traffic that would compromise your database.

Database firewalls are one of the most essential steps to database security. Using them will ensure that only authorized users have access to sensitive data. They will also keep logs of all access to the database and generate specific compliance reports. A firewall is also necessary to protect the database against external attacks. A database firewall should be customized to the network environment to ensure the greatest protection for your data.

A database firewall protects your data by blocking database access from the public network. This is particularly important for databases that are connected to third-party applications. Additionally, it is important to keep your database patched and updated. Moreover, it will help to make your database run more efficiently.

Audit logs

Although some companies crank up logging to 11, this can be an inconvenient task if the data is not organized well. For this reason, tools that allow users to search logs by key fields and indicators are needed. These tools should also allow users to run reports for specified time periods.

Logging events with details, such as time, place, and actor, is another important feature. This information helps determine who did what and when. It also helps to determine the exact entity whose actions were affected. This information helps auditors understand the situation more precisely. Moreover, auditors require a set of security procedures to prevent unauthorized changes to these logs.

Secure logging requires tools that can generate tamper-free logs and can verify all log entries. An audit log can be cryptographically signed, which prevents any unnoticed changes from an adversary. Cryptographic validation can also help to identify tampered log entries, which can help in reconstructing an attack.

Database security audit logs can be collected using native database mechanisms or with dedicated software. However, not all logs are equally valuable to auditors. Moreover, some of these tools can be difficult to use and may not be tailored for auditing purposes.


Database security can be ensured with the use of isolation. Isolation can prevent dirty reads and non-repeatable writes. Among the different types of isolation, read committed isolation is the most restrictive one. This isolation level does not permit other transactions to write, update, or delete data. It is best used when a database is used only by a single user or group of users.

Isolation for database security is achieved by implementing different concurrency control mechanisms. For example, optimistic isolation levels favour write operations and permit concurrent read operations. These levels also support snapshot reads and periodically synchronized database clones. Optimistic isolation is useful when the number of write operations is small, or if concurrent read operations are not expected to conflict. Additionally, optimistic isolation is preferred when the results of queries need to be consistent across the database.

If a transaction is not able to acquire a range lock on the record being read, it will perform a phantom read. This type of anomaly can result in serious consequences. For instance, if a user performs the same query twice, he will end up generating a new set of rows from the same row.

While the default OS user and group run all database processes, high isolation allows tenant databases to run under a separate OS user and group. This way, the database is protected from unauthorized access by OS processes. In addition, it is protected by standard file and directory permissions.